Additional properties settings


By default if a value is not provided it will be set to null or to its default _value (if any). If you don't want this behavior you can define it as _optional and if no value is passed, this property will not be saved in the Datastore.

const schema = new Schema({
website: { optional: true }


Allows you to define a default value for a property. You can either pass a static value or a function to be executed at runtime.

In case you want to set the current time of the request to date property you can use the gstore.defaultValues.NOW for default value (instead of writing a function).

Also, if you have a _modifiedOn _property set in your schema, it will automatically be set to the current time of the request when the entity is saved.

const userSchema = new Schema({
createdOn: { type: Date, default: gstore.defaultValues.NOW }, // will be set to the current time of the request
modifiedOn: { type: Date }, // will automatically be updated to the current time on each "save|update"
randomId: { default: () => uuidV4(), write: false } // function executed at runtime


By default all properties are included in the Datastore indexes. If you don't want some property to be indexed set its excludeFromIndexes option to true.

const articleSchema = new Schema({
author: { type: String },
text: { type: String, excludeFromIndexes: true } // indexes size is limited, so very long text can't be indexed

For embedded entities you can pass one or more properties that you don't want to index by passing the property name or an Array of names.

// In the example below, 'biography' is a property of the embedded entity 'author'
// and 'text' & 'description' are properties of an implicit 'book' embedded entity in the array
// Important: for embedded entities inside **Arrays** you have to specify the type to 'Array' for the excludeFromIndexes to work.
const mySchema = new Schema({
author: { type: Object, excludeFromIndexes: 'biography' },
publication: { type: Object, excludeFromIndexes: '*' }, // Wildcard for all object properties
other: { type: Object, excludeFromIndexes: 'childObject.*' }, // Wildcard on a "child" object
listBooks: { type: Array, excludeFromIndexes: ['text', 'description'] },
anotherList: { type: Array, excludeFromIndexes: '*' },
// The above schema would allow to save the following data:
const data = {
author: {
name: 'John',
biography: '<Some very long text (more than 1500 bytes)>'
publication: {
description: '<Some very long text'>,
history: '<Some very long text'>,
other: {
childObject: {
text: '<Some very long text>',
text2: '<Some very long text>',
listBooks: [{
text: '<Some very long text>',
description: '<Some very long text>',
anotherList: [{
text: '<Some very long text>',
description: '<Some very long text>',


For embedded entities you can provide an array of properties that you don't want to be returned in the queries result or when calling entity.plain()

const articleSchema = new Schema({
author: { type: String },
book: { type: Object, excludeFromRead: ['secret'] }
const ArticleModel = gstore.model('Article', articleSchema);
const article = new ArticleModel({ author: 'John', book: { title: 'Book title', secret: 'some secret value' } });
console.log(article.plain()); // { author: 'John', book: { title: 'Book title' } };
// Or from the result of a Query
.then(({ entities }) => {
entities.forEach((article) => {
console.log(; // undefined


If you don't want certain properties to show up in the response data of queries or when calling entity.plain() (see Entity section), set this parameter to false. This is useful when you have entity properties only useful to your business logic and that you don't want to exposed publicly.

This parameter can be overridden on a query basis by passing a readAll option set to true in:

  • entity.plain({ readAll:true }); (see Entity section)

  • globally in list() and a Schema queries settings

  • inline option of list(), query() and findAround() queries


If you want to protect certain properties to be written by a untrusted source, you can set their write parameter to false. You can then call sanitize() (see Model section) on a Model passing the user data and those properties will be removed from the data to be saved in the Datastore.

// Schema:
const blogPostSchema = new Schema({
protectedProp: { write: false }
// In a Controller:
const BlogPostModel = require('../models/blogpost.model');
function createBlogPost(req, res) {
let data = req.body; // {title: 'Title of the post', protectedProp: 1234};
// Sanitize incoming user data
data = BlogPostModel.sanitize(data);
console.log(data); // {name: 'John', lastname: 'Snow'};


If you want to define a mandatory property, set its required parameter to true. If the value passed for property is undefined, null or an empty string it will not validate and will not be saved in the Datastore.

// Schema:
const userSchema = new Schema({
name: { type: String }
email: { type: String, validate: 'isEmail', required: true }
// In a Controller request:
var data = req.body; // {name: 'John'}; // ---> email is missing
var user = new User(data);
.catch((err) => {
// --> ValidatorError


If you have specified a Schema.Types.Key as a type, you can optionally provide the Entity Type that you want the Key to be of. If you don't specify a ref, any valid Datastore Key is allowed.

const userSchema = new Schema({
name: { type: String }
address: { type: Schema.Types.Key, ref: 'Address' } // Must point to an Address entity Kind
// Could be used like this
const User = require('./user.model');
const Address = require('./address.model');
const user = new User({ name: 'John', address: Adress.key(123) });
// Or first by saving a new address an then create a User with its Key
const address = new Addresss({ country: 'Belgium' });
const { entityKey } = await;
const user = new User({ name: 'John', address: entityKey });

Complete parameters example

var entitySchema = new Schema({
name: {type: String},
lastname: {excludeFromIndexes: true},
email: {validate: 'isEmail', required: true},
website : {validate: 'isURL', optional: true},
modified: {type: Boolean, default: false, read:false}, // won't show up in queries
createdOn: {type: Date, default: gstore.defaultValues.NOW, write:false} // will be removed from data on sanitize()